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In most regions of Uganda there are quite distinctive wet and dry seasons. In much of the southern half, rainfall occurs around March to May and September to November, with the period of June-July and December-January being relatively dry. In northern Uganda the two rainy seasons run together, in effect extending from April to October. In most of Uganda rain falls in the afternoons - although early morning and evening rains do occur at times. However, in parts of western Uganda, the rainfall is predominantly in the form of thunder-storms, and severe hailstorms are frequent, damaging crops and soil cover.
The region surrounding Lake Victoria - sometimes called the Lake Victoria crescent - receives well-distributed rainfall throughout the year, with a relatively dry season between December and March and June-July. The afternoon rains common in the region clear away after a few hours and the land dries up rapidly when the sun appears.
The north-eastern part of Uganda (the Karamoja region) is drier than the rest of the country, partly as a result of the influence of the passage of wind from Somalia (the water vapour content is low the time the winds reach the region after passing through the Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands).
The rainy season in the north-east is April to August, with a marked minimum in June and marked peaks in May and July.
The hilly areas attract more rains, but they are generally heavy and brief, causing sheet erosion and carrying everything down in the seasonal stream and river valleys miles beyond where they originated.
The mean temperature over the whole of Uganda shows little variation, save for the mountainous districts of western Uganda and around Mount Elgon. In west 4 degrees centigrade (39 degrees F) and rise to 21 degrees centigrade (70 degrees F) IN kabala District, whereas in Mbarara District it can climb as high as 29.5 degrees centigrade (85 degrees F), with drastic daily variations. In Karamoja, temperatures can reach 35 degrees centigrade (95 degrees F) during the dry season and 26.6 degrees centigrade (80 degrees F) during the wet months.
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